Heart rate is a term used to describe the heart cycle and refers to the number of times the heart beats per minute. In kinematics or in professional training, we often hear the word "heart rate". However, many people know little about heart rate. Even many people think that heart rate is only something that professional athletes use, but for ordinary non- For professional sports enthusiasts, the heart rate is just a chicken rib, and there is no need to care.
It is not only professional athletes who can benefit from heart rate monitoring. Heart rate is also a concern for ordinary athletes. Scientific research has found that when the athletes are training, if the heart rate cannot reach 120 times/min or more within a certain period of time, it is difficult to achieve the expected exercise effect. In recent years, the frequent occurrence of athletes jumping and dying in high-intensity exercise centers is also caused by excessive heart rate.
It can be seen that the monitoring of heart rate can not only effectively monitor and measure the physical condition of the athlete during the exercise, but also ensure that the athlete does not overtrain or undertrain, so that each training can achieve better results. . Through the monitoring of heart rate, athletes can make reasonable arrangements for the number, frequency and intensity of training.
So, how do we know the right heart rate for our exercise and use the control of exercise heart rate to achieve the desired effect? Before that, we need to have a certain understanding of the heart rate measurement.
Heart rate measurement and application
1, quiet heart rate:
Quiet heart rate refers to the normal heart rate of the human body without physical exercise, that is, the daily heart rate. The normal person's resting heart rate is generally between 60 and 100 beats / min.
The resting heart rate will decrease as the training time increases, and it also shows the training effect. On the other hand, if you find that your heart rate suddenly rises, it is likely to be excessive fatigue or overtraining.
The best time to measure the resting heart rate is to get up early in the morning, and you need to sit for 5 minutes at other times, otherwise the result will be high. The measurement can be performed by pressing the carotid artery or the brachial artery near the wrist to measure the pulse within one minute.
2, exercise heart rate:
The exercise heart rate is the heart rate state that the human body maintains while exercising. Whether it is aerobic exercise or anaerobic exercise, you need a suitable heart rate to achieve better winter transport. Maintaining optimal exercise heart rate is important for both athletic performance and sports safety. If the heart rate is too high, it will be detrimental to your health, leading to nausea, dizziness, chest tightness, etc.; low heart rate is not harmful to the body, but it will affect the exercise effect.
3, the maximum heart rate:
When the human body performs exercise load, the oxygen consumption and heart rate also increase with the increase of exercise volume. At the maximum load intensity, the highest rate of heart rate is reached when the oxygen consumption and heart rate cannot continue to increase. For most people, the maximum heart rate will gradually decrease with age, and the maximum heart rate is usually 170~200 times/min.
The methods for determining the maximum heart rate mainly include the following:
Measuring the maximum heart rate in a laboratory stress test;
Exercise with maximum strength (the most frequent exercise) and record the maximum heart rate. This method provides a fairly accurate maximum heart rate, but this method is difficult to operate correctly and is not recommended for untrained individuals.
Using the heart rate monitor to test the maximum heart rate value predicts the individual's maximum heart rate.
Calculate the maximum heart rate according to the formula. The maximum heart rate measured by this method is easy to operate and is also the most commonly used method for determining the maximum heart rate.
In the past, the formula of “maximum heart rate=220-age” often used by athletes has a large deviation. Therefore, the sportsman has calculated a more accurate new formula:
Maximum heart rate = 205.8-0.685 × age
Heart rate interval on the body
During running, the heart rate reflects the intensity, nature, energy metabolism and oxygen consumption, lactic acid accumulation, and fatigue and recovery of the body.
Heart rate between 120~140 times/min
The highest oxygen uptake, when the heart rate reaches 140 beats / min, the heart rate increases again, the oxygen uptake decreases, the higher the heart rate, the less oxygen uptake.
Heart rate between 120~150 times/min
A range of effective values for running. When the heart rate is below 120 beats/min, the blood pressure, blood components, urine protein and ECG indicators of the body have not changed significantly, so the fitness value is not large, and the exercise effect is not obvious.
Heart rate between 120~180 times/min
The running volume of the running heart is large, and the heart rate is 150 times/min, which is the largest output, and the exercise effect is the best. With a heart rate below 120 beats/min or above 180 beats/min, the pulse output will decrease.
Heart rate between 140~160 times/min
Running for moderate exercise intensity is the most ideal speed for improving heart and lung function.
Heart rate between 150~180 times/min
It can improve the ability of anaerobic metabolism, and at the same time develop aerobic metabolism, which can effectively improve the functions of cardiovascular system and respiratory system.
Heart rate between 170 beats / min - 180 beats / min
It is the index heart rate of intermittent running at different distances. It mainly improves the dirty blood volume and contributes to the improvement and development of cardiopulmonary function.
Heart rate is above 180 beats/min
It is to maximize the ability to work under conditions of insufficient oxygen supply, mainly to develop the anaerobic capacity of adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate.
The effect of heart rate interval on exercise effect
According to the situation of metabolic cycle and energy consumption in the human heart rate interval, we can calculate the different exercise effects under different heart rate intervals.
Warm-up relaxation area: 50%~60% maximum heart rate
Warm-up exercise refers to the use of short-term, low-intensity movements before exercise to allow the body to gradually adapt to the more intense exercise that is about to take place, thus preventing the occurrence of sports injuries.
The relaxation exercise after fitness can gradually relax the tense muscles, the heart rate of the exercise gradually slows down, the elevated blood pressure gradually decreases, and the excited mood gradually calms down. This process center rate should be kept between 50% and 60% of the maximum heart rate. Too low will cause the body to take longer to heat up. If it is too high, the intensity will be too high.
Fat burning area: 60%~70% maximum heart rate
The main source of energy for athletes to run is fat and carbohydrates. In this area, the body mainly supplies energy by burning fat, so the fat burning area is for people who want to lose weight through exercise. The most important area. In fact, this is also the heart rate area most of the most intensive exercisers are in.
If the purpose of our running exercise is to effectively reduce fat or control body fat percentage, then control the heart rate to 60%-70% of the maximum heart rate, and ensure a stable training time as much as possible, the ideal exercise effect will be obtained.
Glycogen consumption area: 70%~80% maximum heart rate
As the running intensity increases, the energy supplied by carbohydrates increases accordingly. When entering the glycogen consumption area, the heart rate rises to 70%-80% of the maximum heart rate, although it will continue to burn fat, but at this time, carbohydrates become the main Energy supply.
Running training in the glycogen consumption area is a good aerobic training, which can improve the heart capacity of the exerciser, increase the stroke volume, increase the lung capacity, increase the maximum oxygen consumption, and effectively exercise the cardiopulmonary function.
Lactic acid accumulation area: 80%~90% maximum heart rate
At the beginning of exercise, as long as the frequency and training time are more, you can get a quick improvement. However, as the experience of the athlete increases and the physical quality improves, the increase in the training volume has less and less impact on the exercise ability. It is not enough to maintain the strength of the training in the glycogen-consumption area. We have to increase the training in the lactic acid accumulation area. When the heart rate reaches more than 80% of the maximum heart rate, the training intensity is changed from aerobic to anaerobic, and the amount of lactic acid is increased. Increasing the body's ability to eliminate and hold lactate requires a short interval of training in the 80%-90% of the maximum heart rate.
Body limit zone: 90% to 100% maximum heart rate
In the game, when the athlete must play 100% of his ability in order to achieve better results, the exercise heart rate will approach or even exceed the maximum heart rate. Training in the 90%~100% maximum heart rate area will quickly deplete the body's glycogen and accumulate more lactic acid. When the glycogen is gradually exhausted, no matter how strong the willpower can not supplement the body's lack of Energy. If this body limit is frequently and long-term, the body will have difficulty adapting to this pressure, so in most cases, we should control the training heart rate below 90% of the maximum heart rate.
In the running exercise, blind training can not only achieve the ideal training effect, but also may cause damage to our body. Therefore, scientifically use heart rate monitoring to develop a reasonable training frequency and training intensity for the athletes. It is very important.