The more you run, the more health benefits, but not the bigger the better.
Numerous scientific studies have confirmed, without exception, that running has many benefits for health: running can prevent obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cancer, etc. Even a relatively low amount of running can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease. Rate and all-cause mortality, the more running, the greater the health benefits, which means that there is a significant dose-response relationship between exercise and health.
But it is obvious that the amount of running is not as big as possible. Excessive running, frequent participation in marathons, super marathon, triathlon and other extreme, high-intensity, extremely long-term exercise, may lead to cardiotoxicity, although the risk is low, but the risk is still there!
A paper published in the famous medical journal "mayo clinic proceedings" systematically reviews recent advances in running health promotion and disease prevention, as well as possible cardiotoxicity problems in excessive running.
The author of this article is Dr. Steven N Blair from the University of South Carolina, USA. Dr. Blair's research focuses on sports and health promotion and disease prevention and control. He is the former American Sports Medicine Association, the National Association for the Promotion of Physical Activity and the President of the American Sports Society. He has published nearly 1,000 papers that have produced a wide range of societies. Impact, high citation rate, Dr. Blair is still active in the field of sports and health research, let's take a look at Dr. Blair's interpretation of running cardiotoxicity.
1 The negative impact of the marathon movement
The study found that high levels of exercise training are associated with atrial, ventricular enlargement, and myocardial fibrosis, and are prone to severe ventricular arrhythmias, which is an important trigger for sudden death. Research on marathon runners also found that about one-third of marathon phones have increased cardiac troponin and brain natriuretic peptide levels, and the increase in these two markers is an important indicator of myocardial necrosis and heart failure. In addition, during the marathon, the atrial and ventricular dilatation increased significantly, and the function was significantly reduced, especially the right ventricular dilatation was obvious.
The following diagram explains the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in endurance athletes, which also reminds runners that attending a marathon too often may be irrational and unsafe.
2 Marathon mortality is extremely low
Although the above content illustrates the harm that the marathon may cause to the body, this does not mean that we cannot participate in the marathon! Experts pointed out that all abnormal changes in the body generally recover within 1 to 3 days after the marathon, and there is no obvious adverse effect on most marathon runners. American scholars also conducted a 10-year follow-up study of American marathon players. They found that only 0.54 deaths per 100,000 marathon runners meant that this was a very small probability event. Some people think that the data is not accurate enough, because the data does not include the deaths that may occur after the marathon (1-3 days). Even so, the mortality rate is increased by 2-3 times, and the total mortality rate of the marathon is still very low. Far less than the number of deaths caused by traffic accidents.
Therefore, if you want to participate in the marathon runners, don't worry too much about the cardiotoxicity that the marathon may bring. Be prepared to participate in the marathon. You are not ok!
3 The more you run, the healthier you are!
The following picture is the survey of experts on different running populations, including 5 groups of people, sedentary people; running within 60 minutes per week; 60-95min; 96-150min; more than 150min, the results show running time and coronary heart disease It is U-shaped, that is, sedentary or running too much, the incidence of coronary heart disease is high, and the incidence of coronary heart disease is lowest in 60-90 minutes of running per week.
At the same time, Williams and Thompson studied 2,400 people with a history of myocardial infarction and found that high-intensity exercise (equivalent to running 50 km per week or walking more than 75 km) is a cardiovascular disease compared with non-exercise. The mortality rate has not decreased! In addition, many studies have also suggested that there is a U-shaped relationship between aerobic exercise and atrial fibrillation (sustained arrhythmia), that is, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise has the lowest risk of atrial fibrillation compared with sedentary exercise. The intensity of exercise, like sedentary movement, increases the risk of atrial fibrillation. This is the best explanation for sports heart health.
4. What is the optimal amount of running?
According to the US Physical Activity Guidelines, the minimum amount of exercise required to promote health is 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per week, or 75 minutes of high-intensity activity per week. Running is in fact a very intense activity and can take slightly less time than the recommended activity time (75 minutes). In general, 5 minutes of running is equivalent to 15 minutes of walking, and 25 minutes of running is equivalent to 105 minutes of walking, which means that if you exercise by walking and achieve the same exercise effect as running, then the time spent is 3 - running 4 times or so.
Several large health tracking studies have concluded that running for up to 40 minutes can achieve the most significant health benefits, meaning that running within 40 minutes is enough, and running for more than 40 minutes does not increase health benefits. At the same time, the total running volume for the week is not recommended to exceed 65 kilometers, more than 65 kilometers, the sports risk will also increase significantly.